This document gives details on the meaning of several certification listing marks: UL, CE, EMC, FCC and CSA.
Product testing can be verified through UL directories online at http://www.ul.com
Most products covered by New Approach Directives can be self-certified by the manufacturer and do not require the intervention of an EU-authorized independent testing/certifying company (notified body). To self-certify, the manufacturer must assess the conformity of the products to the applicable directives and standards. While the use of EU harmonized standards is voluntary in theory, in practice the use of European standards is the best way to meet the requirements of the CE mark directives. This is because the standards offer specific guidelines and tests to meet safety requirements, while the directives, general in nature, do not.
The manufacturer may affix the CE mark to their product following the preparation of a declaration of conformity, the certificate which shows the product conforms to the applicable requirements. They must maintain a technical file to prove conformity. The manufacturer or their authorized representative must be able to provide this certificate together with the technical file at any time, if requested by the appropriate member state authorities.
There is no specific form for the declaration of conformity, but specific information is required. The declaration must include the following:
(1) The manufacturer's name and address.
(2) The product.
(3) The CE mark directives that apply to the product, e.g. the machine directive 93/37/EC or the low voltage directive 73/23/EEC.
(4) The European standards used, e.g. EN 50081-2:1993 for the EMC directive or EN 60950:1991 for the low voltage requirement for information technology.
(5) The declaration must show the signature of a company official for purposes of the company assuming liability for the safety of its product in the European market. This European standards organization has set up the Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive. According to CE, The Directive basically states that products must not emit unwanted electromagnetic pollution (interference). Because there is a certain amount of electromagnetic pollution in the environment, the Directive also states that products must be immune to a reasonable amount of interference. The Directive itself gives no guidelines on the required level of emissions or immunity that is left to the standards that are used to demonstrate compliance with the Directive.
The EMC-directive (89/336/EEC) Electromagnetic Compatibility
Like all other directives, this is a new-approach directive, which means that only the main requirements (essential requirements) are required. The EMC-directive mentions two ways of showing compliance to the main requirements:
The LVD-directive (73/26/EEC) Safety
Like all CE-related directives, this is a new-approach directive, which means that only the main requirements (essential requirements) are required. The LVD-directive describes how to show compliance to the main requirements.
All devices that operate at a clock rate of 9 kHz are required to test their product to the appropriate FCC Code.
The CSA Mark
The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) is a nonprofit association serving business, industry, government and consumers in Canada and the global marketplace. Among many other activities, CSA develops standards that enhance public safety.
A Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory, CSA is very familiar with U.S. requirements. According to OSHA regulations, the CSA-US Mark qualifies as an alternative to the UL Mark.
Here are some areas where CSA standards are applied:
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