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What is CEE?

CEE, short for Cross-Eyed Experiment, is a widely used technique in the field of neuroscience to study vision and visual perception. It involves inducing cross-eyed (convergent) or wall-eyed (divergent) alignment of the eyes in order to manipulate the brain's processing of visual information. This technique utilizes specially designed stereograms or images that require the observer to fuse two slightly different views and create a 3D perception.

How Does CEE Work?

When an individual looks at a CEE image, their eyes are forced to deviate from their natural parallel alignment. For example, when presented with a convergent CEE image, the eyes would involuntarily converge towards each other, bringing the fovea (the central part of the retina responsible for detailed vision) of both eyes onto corresponding points of the image. This creates a perception of depth and stimulates the brain to interpret the image as a three-dimensional scene.

Cross-Eyed Experiment exploits the binocular disparity, which refers to the difference in the position of corresponding points on the retina between the eyes. By manipulating this disparity through the use of CEE images, researchers can investigate various aspects of visual processing, including depth perception, stereo acuity, spatial resolution, motion perception, and more.

Applications of CEE in Research and Clinical Settings

The use of CEE in research has provided valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying visual perception and its disorders. One prominent application is the study of stereopsis, the ability to perceive depth and three-dimensionality. CEE enables researchers to measure an individual's stereo acuity, which is often impaired in conditions such as amblyopia (lazy eye) or strabismus (misalignment of the eyes).

Additionally, CEE has been utilized in clinical settings to diagnose and treat visual disorders. By manipulating the alignment of the eyes and presenting specific stimuli, optometrists and ophthalmologists can assess and rehabilitate binocular vision. The information gathered from CEE testing helps develop personalized treatment plans for patients with conditions such as convergence insufficiency or other binocular vision problems.


The Cross-Eyed Experiment technique, or CEE, offers a valuable tool for studying visual perception and diagnosing vision-related conditions. By manipulating eye alignment and presenting specialized images, researchers and clinicians can delve into the complexities of the human visual system. Whether it's investigating depth perception mechanisms or assessing binocular vision disorders, CEE continues to contribute to our understanding of how we perceive and interpret the world around us.

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